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File Inclusion


File Inclusion attacks are of two types:

  • Local File Inclusion (LFI). It consists of exploiting a directory-traversal vulnerability to include files that were not intended by the application. A common target is the famous /etc/passwd file.
  • Remote File Inclusion (RFI). Same as LFI but by injecting a remote file (e.g. C99shell).

Proof of Concept

Notice that NULL Byte has been disabled from PHP 5.3.4

How to detect?

How to protect against it?

  • Upgrade to the latest version of PHP
  • Never trust user inputs. Always challenge the strings against whitelists and purify/sanitze content.